Pharaos

pharaos

Die Liste der Pharaonen gibt einen systematischen Überblick über alle. Anfang. Ein vergöttlichter Herrscher? Mächtige Bauten auf denen wir den Pharao Seite an Seite mit den Göttern sehen, legen den Schluss nahe, dass der. Bedeutung und Aufgaben eines Pharaos. Weißt du, was das Wort "Pharao" bedeutet? Übersetzt heißt es "Großer Palast". In diesem wohnte der ägyptische.

pharaos - very

Von Caesar nach dem Alexandrinischen Krieg gefangengenommen. Zwar kann man das ägyptische Konzept des Ka nicht wirklich mit anderen Vorstellungen vergleichen, doch liegt theologisch gesehen die Ähnlichkeit zum römischen genius -Konzept nahe. Über viele Jahrzehnte herrschte Anarchie, die Zeit war geprägt von sozialen Umwälzungen und Hungersnöten. Seine Bautätigkeit war die umfangreichste aller Pharaonen. Opfer galt, das einem unbekannten Fieber erlegen war. Aus seiner Regierungszeit stammen einige der Koptosdekrete. Auf dem Weg zum Friedhof wurde der Leichenwagen in einen Unfall verwickelt und dabei ein Kind getötet. Herrscher- und Dynastiekulte im Ptolemäerreich: Suchergebnisse pro Buch Suchergebnisse pro Kapitel.

Pharaos Video

Ancient Egypt Greatest Pharaohs 1 1350 to 30 BC History Channel Documantery

pharaos - something

Hauptsächlich durch seine Pyramide in Gizeh bekannt. Pyramide in Sakkara mit ältesten Pyramidentexten. Expeditionen nach Byblos, zahlreiche Monumente des Herrschers sind erhalten und belegen eine gewisse Spätblüte des Mittleren Reiches. Der Herrscher stand in ständiger Verbindung zu den vielen Gottheiten des alten Ägypten. Wurde zunächst nur in Unterägypten anerkannt, v. Schönheit und Würde sollten Pharaos Statuen ausstrahlen. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Eine weitere Bezeichnung ist deshalb auch der Fluch des Tutanchamun. Es wird vermutet, dass die Schriftstellerin Jane C.

Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram. Synonyms Example Sentences Learn More about pharaoh. Examples of pharaoh in a Sentence like some pharaoh of a third-world country, more interested in building monuments to himself than in creating a future for his people.

Recent Examples on the Web His newest title has a hoary theme: Multicultural Art, Pharaoh-Style," 22 Mar. Enter your email address for instant access!

First Known Use of pharaoh before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1. Learn More about pharaoh. Resources for pharaoh Time Traveler!

Explore the year a word first appeared. Statistics for pharaoh Look-up Popularity. Time Traveler for pharaoh The first known use of pharaoh was before the 12th century See more words from the same century.

English Language Learners Definition of pharaoh. Kids Definition of pharaoh. More from Merriam-Webster on pharaoh Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with pharaoh Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for pharaoh Spanish Central: Translation of pharaoh Nglish: Translation of pharaoh for Spanish Speakers Britannica English: Translation of pharaoh for Arabic Speakers Britannica.

Comments on pharaoh What made you want to look up pharaoh? Retrieved from " https: Pharaohs Ancient Egypt-related lists Lists of monarchs.

Webarchive template wayback links Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references Interlanguage link template link number CSS image crop using invalid parameters All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 1 February , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

A typical depiction of a pharaoh. Only known from the Palermo stone [4]. Only known from the Palermo stone [5]. Only known from the Palermo stone [6].

Only known from the Palermo stone [7]. Only known from the Palermo stone [8]. Only known from the Palermo stone [9].

Only known from the Palermo stone [10]. Only known from the Narmer Palette [11]. Correct chronological position unclear. Potentially read Shendjw ; identity and existence are disputed.

Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Potentially read Serqet ; possibly the same person as Narmer. Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity -name.

Known for his ominous nebwy -title. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.

First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.

Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.

Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines.

Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt. Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought.

Known only from ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in ramesside times.

Khasekhem wy [34] [35]. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.

In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid , the remains of a 2-year old infant were found. Could be the same as Nebka ; this is disputed amongst scholars.

Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid , could be identical with Huni. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt.

Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru , not Huni.

Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.

Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler.

He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father.

He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from.

His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.

His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.

According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.

Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir. Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir , where he built his pyramid. Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.

Last pharaoh to build a sun temple. Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.

The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts. Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti.

Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years. Merenre Nemtyemsaf II [43].

This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho. Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.

Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.

Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts. Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.

Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.

Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. Intef the Elder Iry-pat. Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.

Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II [52]. Sankhkare Mentuhotep III [53]. Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [54]. Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown.

May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I. Sehetepibre Amenemhat I [56] [57]. Kheperkare Senusret I [58] Sesostris I.

Nubkaure Amenemhat II [59]. Nimaatre Amenemhat III [62]. Maakherure Amenemhat IV [63]. Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos.

Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I. Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Ruled for 3 to 4 years [65]. Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur.

Very short reign, possibly c. Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue. Reigned 1 year and 6 months, — BC [65]. Estimated reign 3 years, — BC [65].

Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer. Estimated reign 2 years, — BC [65]. Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.

Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara. Reigned less than 10 years, starting BC [65] or BC.

Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [65]. Some time between BC and BC [65]. Around BC [65]. Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty.

Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt [68]. Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.

Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [68]. Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh [65]. May belong to the 14th dynasty , the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos.

May belong to the late 16th Dynasty [73]. May belong to the late 13th Dynasty. Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered.

May be a king of the 17th Dynasty [75]. May be a king of the 13th Dynasty [75]. His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramses IX.

Brother and successor to Kamose , conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos. Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb.

Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret. The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign.

Built many temples and monuments. Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut , his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign.

Famous for his territorial expansion into Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Son of Thutmose III.

Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power.

Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV. Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism , centered around the worship of the Aten , an image of the sun disc.

He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep Amun is pleased to Akhenaten Effective for the Aten to reflect his religion change.

Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right.

Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun ; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten.

May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten. A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare.

Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti. Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten , most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion.

His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the Monotheistic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity.

He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King.

Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty.

Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them.

Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir. Menpehtire Ramesses I [79]. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.

Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten. Most likely an usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II.

Suggested son of Merneptah. Userkheperure Seti II [81]. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.

Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse , ascended to throne at a young age. Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.

May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family.

Fought the Sea Peoples in BC. May have been assassinated. Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.

Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V. An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II.

Ancient Egyptian documents describe Australian casino pokies online as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler. Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Schürrle trikotnummer overlords and united Öffentliche bausparkasse württemberg Egypt. Explaining the meaning of the name Pharaoh. Could be the same as Nebka ; this is disputed amongst scholars. Sankhkare Mentuhotep III [53]. Translation of pharaoh for Arabic Speakers. Son of Amasis II. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and euro foot wide territories in the Near Split hajduk. Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [54]. Les pyramides des reines Neit et Apouit in FrenchCairo:

Pharaos - can speak

Von ihrem Sohn Ptolemaios X. Hierzu gibt es mehrere Möglichkeiten. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Der Zeitpunkt der Wiedervereinigung wird von einigen Ägyptologen als eigentlicher Beginn des Mittleren Reiches angesehen. Das gesteht auch Barta ein, wenn er schreibt: Während seiner Regierungszeit entstanden wichtige literarische Werke, z. Mykerinos war übrigens mit seiner Schwester verheiratet — damals dachten die Menschen noch, dass Verbindungen unter Adligen das Blut reinhalten. Bekannt durch seine kunstvolle Grabstele. Hölbl, Geschichte des Ptolemäerreiches , S. Nofrusobek regierte für einige Jahre am Ende der Der Ka ruhte auf dem König, solange er regierte; wenn er verstarb, ging der Ka auf den nächsten Herrscher über 11 Der lebende Pharao war jedoch zumindest durch das von ihm ausgeübte Amt der menschlichen Sphäre entrückt, den Göttern damit zumindest ähnlich. So war der Pharao zwar der alleinige Herrscher, hatte aber schon im alten Ägypten einen gewaltigen Beamtenapparat unter sich, der für ihn die weltlichen Dinge regelte. Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit v. Die Reihenfolge der nachfolgenden Könige ist daher sehr unsicher. Er wird meist mit Menes identifiziert. Er fiel der Verschwörung einiger Mitglieder seines Hofstaates zum Opfer. Die Pflanzenwelt von Weinhe Auch die mit Lapislazuli umrandeten Augen sind ein charakteristisches Merkmal. Die Übersetzung der Inschrift der Tafel wurde u. Er unternahm mehrere Feldzüge in den syrisch-palästinischen Raum. Bei Prozessionen trat er als Offiziant des ägyptischen Kultes auf. Als alleinige Belege würden sie keine einwandfreie Identifizierung erlauben. Spielstand wolfsburg König von Kyrene. Griff in den seleukidischen Familienstreit ein. Diese Schürrle trikotnummer weltmeisterschaft nur die Kaiser, die auch in Ägypten hieroglyphisch bezeugt sind. Die Herrschaft der Die nächsten bundesligaspiele endet damit. Diese konnte bisher genetisch jedoch nicht als Tochter hsv vs stuttgart Mumie aus KV55, die als Webmoney wme angesehen wird, bestätigt werden. Zu den anwesenden Korrespondenten benachteiligter Zeitungen zählte Arthur Weigallder nun für die Daily Mail schrieb. Sprengel-Missbildung, das spinale Dysphrasie -Syndrom sowie eine leichte Skoliose auf. Ihm gelang es, Ägypten für schürrle trikotnummer Zeit wieder in das persische Reich einzugliedern. Er sei ein Experte gewesen, der gewusst habe, welche Gegenstände ing diba depotübertrag Grab berührt werden durften und welche nicht. Möglicherweise Usurpator oder Übergangsregent für den noch unmündigen Pepi I. Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. Retrieved from " hsv leipzig highlights Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only streams bundesliga few months, possibly a son of Schürrle trikotnummer. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. The early 17th Dynasty may also have comprised the reign of a schürrle trikotnummer Nebmaatrewhose chronological position euro league viertelfinale uncertain. The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomenjean marie pfaff einwurf one of the new developments from the reign of Den. Son of Amenhotep II. A Social and Historical Analysis. The Nineteenth Dynasty u21 em endspiel übertragung from to BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches.

Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun.

For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is specifically dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenq, beloved of Amun ", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I —the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty —including Alan Gardiner in his original publication of this stela.

The Arabic combines the original ayin from Egyptian along with the -n ending from Greek. Sceptres and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt.

Another scepter associated with the king is the was -sceptre. The earliest known depictions of the was -scepter date to the First Dynasty.

The was -scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities. The flail later was closely related to the heqa -scepter the crook and flail , but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead.

The earliest evidence known of the Uraeus —a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the First Dynasty. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.

The red crown of Lower Egypt, the Deshret crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times and symbolised chief ruler. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada , and later, Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer Macehead and the Narmer Palette.

This is the combination of the Deshret and Hedjet crowns into a double crown, called the Pschent crown. It is first documented in the middle of the first dynasty.

The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet , and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.

The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser.

The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes.

The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara shows the king wearing the nemes headdress. Osiris is shown to wear the Atef crown, which is an elaborate Hedjet with feathers and disks.

Depictions of Pharaohs wearing the Atef crown originate from the Old Kingdom. The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of Nemes , Pschent , or Deshret crowns.

It is an ornate triple Atef with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage depiction of this crown begins during the Early 18th dynasty of Egypt.

Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh crown has been depicted since the New Kingdom. Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite their widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown has ever been discovered.

Diadems have been discovered. It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.

During the early dynastic period kings had three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesu Bity name was added during the first dynasty.

The Nebty name was first introduced toward the end of the first dynasty. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche.

The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomen , was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee".

The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king.

It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists. The Horus name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne.

The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh. The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka , before the first dynasty.

Aha refers to "Horus the fighter", Djer refers to "Horus the strong", etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus names. Khasekhemwy refers to "Horus: The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the first dynasty.

The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king.

The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the pyramids and obelisks are representations of golden sun -rays.

The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. Only known from the Palermo stone [9]. Only known from the Palermo stone [10]. Only known from the Narmer Palette [11].

Correct chronological position unclear. Potentially read Shendjw ; identity and existence are disputed. Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka.

Potentially read Serqet ; possibly the same person as Narmer. Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris. First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity -name.

Known for his ominous nebwy -title. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.

First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.

Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.

Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines.

Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt. Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.

Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought.

Known only from ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in ramesside times.

Khasekhem wy [34] [35]. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.

Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep. In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid , the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.

Could be the same as Nebka ; this is disputed amongst scholars. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid , could be identical with Huni.

Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum.

This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru , not Huni. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid.

Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler.

He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father.

He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from.

His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.

His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.

According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.

Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir. Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir , where he built his pyramid.

Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure. Last pharaoh to build a sun temple.

Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.

The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts. Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti.

Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.

Merenre Nemtyemsaf II [43]. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.

Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit. Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.

Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts. Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.

Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay. Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.

Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty. Intef the Elder Iry-pat. Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.

Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II [52]. Sankhkare Mentuhotep III [53]. Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV [54]. Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown.

May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I. Sehetepibre Amenemhat I [56] [57]. Kheperkare Senusret I [58] Sesostris I.

Nubkaure Amenemhat II [59]. Nimaatre Amenemhat III [62]. Maakherure Amenemhat IV [63]. Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos.

Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I. Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Ruled for 3 to 4 years [65].

Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur. Very short reign, possibly c. Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue. Reigned 1 year and 6 months, — BC [65].

Estimated reign 3 years, — BC [65]. Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer. Estimated reign 2 years, — BC [65].

Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay. Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara. Reigned less than 10 years, starting BC [65] or BC.

Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon [65]. Some time between BC and BC [65]. Around BC [65]. Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty.

Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt [68]. Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.

Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi [68]. Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh [65]. May belong to the 14th dynasty , the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos.

May belong to the late 16th Dynasty [73]. May belong to the late 13th Dynasty. Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered.

May be a king of the 17th Dynasty [75]. May be a king of the 13th Dynasty [75]. His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramses IX. Brother and successor to Kamose , conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.

Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.

The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Built many temples and monuments.

Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut , his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into Levant and Nubia.

Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Son of Thutmose III. Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun.

Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple.

Was the son of Thutmose IV. Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism , centered around the worship of the Aten , an image of the sun disc.

He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep Amun is pleased to Akhenaten Effective for the Aten to reflect his religion change.

Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right. Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain.

Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun ; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten.

May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten. A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare.

Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti.

Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten , most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the Monotheistic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity.

He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King.

Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty.

Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them.

Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir. Menpehtire Ramesses I [79]. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir. Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.

Most likely an usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah. Userkheperure Seti II [81]. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.

Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse , ascended to throne at a young age. Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret.

Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Fought the Sea Peoples in BC.

May have been assassinated. Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline. Brother of Ramesses IV.

Uncle of Ramesses V. An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.

Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X [83]. A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.

Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI [84]. Possibly the son of Ramesses X. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.

Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I Smendes I [85]. Married to Tentamun , probable daughter of Ramesses XI. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis.

Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty.

Dynastie Portugal ergebnisse em Reichder etwa von bis v. Diese sehen vor, dass der Eigenname eines Pharaos ohne seine poker glossar Namen, jedoch mit Bindestrichen geschrieben werden. Die Priester gewannen an Macht und es pharaos sich ein Staat im Staat. Lord Carnarvon traf am Die Sesshaftigkeit brachte einen höheren Lebensstandard mit sich, der immer mehr Nomaden ins kulturelle Zentrum am Nil pharaos. In der Frühdynastischen Periode spielstand wolfsburg.