Wikipedia türkce - consider, thatAm Wortende oder vor Konsonanten zeigt es die lange Aussprache des vorhergehenden Vokals an. Seine Phonetik ist die Basis der heutigen türkischen Hochsprache. Lediglich Person und Numerus werden durch dieselbe Klasse von Suffixen ausgedrückt, es gibt also nur ein Suffix für die 1. Zur Kennzeichnung einer einzelnen, individuellen, aber nicht weiter bestimmten Sache das sind Fälle, in denen im Deutschen der unbestimmte Artikel verwendet wird , kann im Türkischen das Zahlwort bir eins stehen. Vowel harmony can be viewed as a process of assimilation , whereby following vowels take on the characteristics of the preceding vowel. Es tritt vor allen anderen Suffixen, also auch vor den Kasussuffixen, unmittelbar an den Wortstamm. Münif Pascha sah die arabische Schrift als Ursache für den dragon city neu anfangen Analphabetismus in der damaligen Türkei. Seit der zweiten Hälfte des Alttürkisch ist die Sprache der Orchon-Inschriften und die erste bekannte Verschriftlichung des Uigurischen. Eine Besonderheit der türkischen Sprache ist die Vokalharmoniewelche zwischen hellen und dunklen Vokalen unterscheidet. Hamburger rugby club variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the s. Im Juli wurde der To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish —the variety of the Wikipedia türkce language that was wikipedia türkce as the administrative and literary language europa league wetten the Ottoman Empire —spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. Woher kommen die Seitenabrufe Leser der türkischsprachigen Wikipedia nach der Sperrung? Die frühesten Werke in türkischer Sprache in Anatolien stammen vom The past few casino bad wiessee gutschein have seen the continuing work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language, mostly from Lotto land gratis 1000 euro pro tag. However, the casino casumo sentence requires the addition of a negative suffix -me to how to redeem double down casino codes verb the suffix comes after the stem www.online before the tense: Leo deutsch-englisch labiodentaler Frikativ wie dt. Armenismen kommen in türkischen Dialekten seltener vor. Pada seorang saudagar Belanda Van Rijekevorsel memberikan selembar batik yang diperolehnya saat berkunjung ke Indonesia ke Museum Etnik di Rotterdam dan pada awal abad ke itulah batik mulai mencapai masa keemasannya.
Wikipedia Türkce VideoVOYAGER 1 - Elite Dangerous Türkçe Gerundeter halboffener Vorderzungenvokal wie dt. Bei den Schreib- und Ausspracheregeln existieren langweiliger sonntag keine Ausnahmen. Für die auch als Türkische Sprachen bezeichnete Sprachfamilie siehe Turksprachen. Dieses türkisch-arabische Wörterbuch enthält neben der Übertragung von Wortmaterial eine Fülle von historischen, geographischen und folkloristischen Einzelheiten. Februar um Die türkische Sprache selbst weist eine Reihe von Dialekten auf, von denen der Istanbuler Dialekt von besonderer Bedeutung ist. Türkisch war zudem die Muttersprache für Stimmhafter labiodentaler Frikativ wie dt. Wie bei anderen Fremdsprachen kann man auch Türkisch auf dem eigenen Computer nutzen. It never occurs at the beginning of a word or a syllable, but always follows a vowel. Wird nun ein Suffix an einen stimmlosen Konsonanten angehängt, so muss ein stimmhafter Konsonant im Suffixanlaut angepasst werden. Dieses Wiki wurde am Nominativ , Genitiv , Dativ , Akkusativ bestimmt: Diese können auch ein eigenes Subjekt haben. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the s. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Stimmhafter postalveolarer Frikativ wie dt. Vor allem bei der Bildung von Lokativ - und Possessivverbindungen sowie Deklinationen spielt dies eine Rolle. Januar um Die türkische Sprache selbst weist eine Reihe von Dialekten auf, von denen der Istanbuler Dialekt von besonderer Ignition casino ist. An Genera Verbi gibt es im Türkischen weit mehr casino jack pelicula online im Deutschen.
One of the tasks of the newly established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents.
While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, it also opted for reviving Old Turkish words which had not been used for centuries.
Owing to this sudden change in the language, older and younger people in Turkey started to differ in their vocabularies. While the generations born before the s tend to use the older terms of Arabic or Persian origin, the younger generations favor new expressions.
The past few decades have seen the continuing work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language, mostly from English.
Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance. However, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial.
Some words restored from Old Turkic have taken on specialized meanings; for example betik originally meaning "book" is now used to mean " script " in computer science.
Many of the words derived by TDK coexist with their older counterparts. Sometimes the loanword has a slightly different meaning from the native Turkish word, creating a situation similar to the coexistence of Germanic and Romance words in English.
Turkish is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey and by the Turkish diaspora in some 30 other countries. Turkish language is mutually intelligible with Azerbaijani and other Turkic languages.
In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly in whole or part belonged to the Ottoman Empire , such as Iraq  , Bulgaria, Cyprus , Greece primarily in Western Thrace , the Republic of Macedonia , Romania, and Serbia.
Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is one of the official languages of Cyprus. Turkish has official status in 38 municipalities in Kosovo , including Mamusha,   and two in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Turkish Language Association was influenced by the ideology of linguistic purism: TDK became an independent body in , with the lifting of the requirement that it should be presided over by the Minister of Education.
Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the s.
Projects investigating Turkish dialects are being carried out by several universities, as well as a dedicated work group of the Turkish Language Association.
Work is currently in progress for the compilation and publication of their research as a comprehensive dialect atlas of the Turkish language.
Rumelice is spoken by immigrants from Rumelia , and includes the distinct dialects of Ludogorie , Dinler, and Adakale, which are influenced by the theoretized Balkan sprachbund.
Edirne is the dialect of Edirne. Ege is spoken in the Aegean region, with its usage extending to Antalya. The Meskhetian Turks who live in Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Russia as well as in several Central Asian countries, also speak an Eastern Anatolian dialect of Turkish, originating in the areas of Kars, Ardahan, and Artvin and sharing similarities with Azerbaijani , the language of Azerbaijan.
Karadeniz , spoken in the Eastern Black Sea Region and represented primarily by the Trabzon dialect, exhibits substratum influence from Greek in phonology and syntax ;  it is also known as Laz dialect not to be confused with the Laz language.
Kastamonu is spoken in Kastamonu and its surrounding areas. It is the literary standard for the Karamanlides.
It never occurs at the beginning of a word or a syllable, but always follows a vowel. When word-final or preceding another consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
The distribution of these phonemes is often unpredictable, however, in foreign borrowings and proper nouns. This is analogous to languages such as German and Russian , but in the case of Turkish, the spelling is usually made to match the sound.
Turkish is an agglutinative language where a series of suffixes are added to the stem word; vowel harmony is a phonological process which ensures a smooth flow, requiring the least amount of oral movement as possible.
Vowel harmony can be viewed as a process of assimilation , whereby following vowels take on the characteristics of the preceding vowel.
The place and manner of articulation of the vowels will determine which pattern of vowel harmony a word will adopt. The pattern of vowels is shown in the table above.
Grammatical affixes have "a chameleon-like quality",  and obey one of the following patterns of vowel harmony:. Practically, the twofold pattern also referred to as the e-type vowel harmony means that in the environment where the vowel in the word stem is formed in the front of the mouth, the suffix will take the e-form, while if it is formed in the back it will take the a-form.
The road sign in the photograph above illustrates several of these features:. The rules of vowel harmony may vary by regional dialect.
Word-accent is usually on the last syllable in most words. Exceptions include certain loanwords , particularly from Italian and Greek, as well as interjections, certain question words, adverbs although not adjectives functioning as adverbs , and many proper names.
See Turkish phonology Place names. In some circumstances for example, in the second half of compound words or when verbs are preceded by an indefinite object the accent on a word is suppressed and cannot be heard.
Turkish has two groups of sentences: In the case of a verbal sentence, the predicate is a finite verb, while the predicate in nominal sentence will have either no overt verb or a verb in the form of the copula ol or y variants of "be".
Examples of both are given below: The two groups of sentences have different ways of forming negation. However, the verbal sentence requires the addition of a negative suffix -me to the verb the suffix comes after the stem but before the tense: Necla okula gitmedi Necla did not go to school.
In the case of a verbal sentence, an interrogative morpheme -mi is added to the end of the sentence and stands alone, for example Necla okula gitti mi?
Did Necla go to school? Necla, are you a teacher? Word order in simple Turkish sentences is generally subject—object—verb , as in Korean and Latin , but unlike English, for verbal sentences and subject-predicate for nominal sentences.
However, as Turkish possesses a case-marking system, and most grammatical relations are shown using morphological markers, often the SOV structure has diminished relevance, in fact it may be considered a "pragmatic word order" of language, one that does not rely on word order for grammatical purposes.
Consider the following simple sentence which demonstrates that the focus in Turkish is on the element that immediately precedes the verb: The postpredicate position signifies what is referred to as background information in Turkish- information that is assumed to be known to both the speaker and the listener, or information that is included in the context.
Consider the following examples: There has been some debate among linguists whether Turkish is a subject-prominent like English or topic-prominent like Japanese and Korean language, with recent scholarship implying that it is indeed both subject and topic-prominent.
Turkish is an agglutinative language and frequently uses affixes , and specifically suffixes, or endings.
Most affixes indicate the grammatical function of the word. The extensive use of affixes can give rise to long words, e.
While this case is contrived, long words frequently occur in normal Turkish, as in this heading of a newspaper obituary column: There is no definite article in Turkish, but definiteness of the object is implied when the accusative ending is used see below.
Turkish nouns decline by taking case endings. There are six noun cases in Turkish, with all the endings following vowel harmony shown in the table using the shorthand superscript notation.
Additionally, nouns can take suffixes that assign person: With the addition of the copula for example -im 4 , "I am" complete sentences can be formed.
The interrogative particle mi 4 immediately follows the word being questioned: The Turkish personal pronouns in the nominative case are ben 1s , sen 2s , o 3s , biz 1pl , siz 2pl, or 2h , and onlar 3pl.
They are declined regularly with some exceptions: All other pronouns reflexive kendi and so on are declined regularly.
The following table illustrates these principles. The suffixes involved in the linking are underlined. Note that if the second noun group already had a possessive suffix because it is a compound by itself , no further suffix is added.
As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group. However, in this case the first noun acts as an adjective,  e.
Turkish adjectives are not declined. However most adjectives can also be used as nouns, in which case they are declined: Used attributively, adjectives precede the nouns they modify.
The adjectives var "existent" and yok " non-existent " are used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", e.
Turkish verbs indicate person. They can be made negative, potential "can" , or impotential "cannot". Furthermore, Turkish verbs show tense present , past , future , and aorist , mood conditional , imperative , inferential , necessitative , and optative , and aspect.
Almost all Turkish verbs are conjugated in the same way, most notable exception being the irregular and defective verb i- , the Turkish copula corresponding to English to be , which can be used in compound forms the shortened form is called an enclitic: For the sake of simplicity the term "tense" is used here throughout, although for some forms "aspect" or "mood" might be more appropriate.
There are 9 simple and 20 compound tenses in Turkish. There are also so-called combined verbs, which are created by suffixing certain verb stems like bil or ver to the original stem of a verb.
Bil is the suffix for the sufficiency mood. It is the equivalent of the English auxiliary verbs "able to", "can" or "may". Ver is the suffix for the swiftness mood, kal for the perpetuity mood and yaz for the approach "almost" mood.
The tenses of the combined verbs are formed the same way as for simple verbs. These forms can function as either adjectives or nouns: The most important function of some of these attributive verbs is to form modifying phrases equivalent to the relative clauses found in most European languages.
The other attributive forms used in these constructions are the future -ecek 2 and an older form -dik 4 , which covers both present and past meanings.
The use of these "personal or relative participles" is illustrated in the following table, in which the examples are presented according to the grammatical case which would be seen in the equivalent English relative clause.
Turkish extensively uses agglutination to form new words from nouns and verbal stems. The majority of Turkish words originate from the application of derivative suffixes to a relatively small set of core vocabulary.
Turkish obeys certain principles when it comes to suffixation. There is also a prescribed order of affixation of suffixes- as a rule of thumb, derivative suffixes precede inflectional suffixes which are followed by clitics , as can be seen in the example set of words derived from a substantive root below:.
New words are also frequently formed by compounding two existing words into a new one, as in German. Compounds can be of two types- bare and s I.
A few examples of compound words are given below:. However, the majority of compound words in Turkish are s I compounds, which means that the second word will be marked by the 3rd person possessive suffix.
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